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ENT SURGERY

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ENT Surgery
WRITTEN BY DAVID ON 01 APRIL 2012. POSTED IN RSURGERY

Otolaryngology or ENT (ear, nose, and throat) is the branch of medicine and surgery that specializes in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the head and neck.

The full name of the specialty is otorhinolaryngology; the full term otorhinolaryngology literally means “the study of ear and throat”.

Practitioners are called and professionally designated by the more accurate term otolaryngologists–head and neck surgeons, as specialists trained in otolaryngology are experts in surgical conditions of the head & neck. Some people refer to it simply as head and neck surgery.

Some ENT surgeons have advanced fellowship training in Pediatric Otolaryngology or Facial Plastics or several other disciplines.
Sub-Subspecialties
Head and Neck Oncology
Otology and neuro-otology
Rhinology
Pediatrics
Laryngology
Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery

Otolaryngologists are medical doctors DO, MBBS, MBChB, etc. who, in the United States, complete at least five years of surgical residency training. This is composed of one year in general surgical training and four years in otolaryngology–head and neck surgery; in the past it varied between two and three years of each.

Following residency training some otolaryngologists elect to complete advanced subspeciality
fellowship training which can be 1–2 years in duration otolaryngology, neuro-otology, laryngology, facial plastic and reconstructive surgery, rhinology, or head and neck oncology).citation needed
Subspecialties

Head and neck
Facial plastics
Otology
Neuro-otology*
Rhinology/sinus
Laryngology
Pediatrics*
Sleep*

Surgical oncology
Facial cosmetic surgery
Ear
Middle and inner ear
Sinusitis
Voice therapy
Velopalatine insufficiency

Reconstruction
Maxillofacial
Hearing
Temporal bone
Allergy
Phono-surgery
Cleft lip and palate

Endocrine surgery
Trauma

Skull base
Anterior skull base
Airway

Dizziness
Apnea and snoring
Vascular malformations

implant/BAHA
(* Currently recognized by American Board of Medical Subspecialties). Topics in otolaryngology, head and neck surgery
Head and Neck Oncology
Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx
Oral cancer
skin Cancer of the head & neck Thyroid cancer
Endocrine surgery of the head and neck (thyroidectomy, parathyroidectomy)
Microvascular free flap reconstruction
Skull base surgery
Otology and neuro-otology
Dizziness BPPV – benign paroxysmal positional vertigo labyrinthitis vestibular neuronitis

Ménière’s disease endolymphatic hydrops

Perilymphatic fistula
acoustic neuroma
Hearing loss
Mastoiditis
Otitis externa
outer ear or ear canal inflammation
Otitis media – middle ear inflammation Otitis interna –inner ear inflammation Perforated eardrum (hole in the eardrum due to infection, trauma, explosion or loud noise)
Ear surgery
Rhinology
Rhinology pertains to sinus diseases and the anterior skull base.
Environmental allergies
Sinusitis – acute, chronic
Rhinitis
Empty nose syndrome
Pediatrics
Adenoidectomy
Caustic ingestion
Cricotracheal resection
Decannulation
laryngomalacia
Laryngotracheal reconstruction
Myringotomy and tubes
Obstructive – pediatric
Tonsillectomy
Laryngology
Dysphonia
Laryngitis
Reinke’s edema
Vocal cord nodules and polyps

Spasmodic dysphonia Tracheostomy Cancer of the larynx Vocology – science and practice of voice habilitation

Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery
Facial plastic and reconstructive surgery is a one-year fellowship open to otolaryngologists and plastic surgeons who wish to specialize in the aesthetic and reconstructive surgery of the head, face, and neck.
Rhinoplasty and septoplasty
Facelift (rhytidectomy)
Browlift
Blepharoplasty
Otoplasty
Genioplasty
Injectable cosmetic treatments
Trauma to the face